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Dental Health

Your health - your smile - they go together

Maintaining good health is a fundamental goal of everyone. It's not limited to vital organs and overall endurance. Dental health may be easily overlooked, but when your mouth hurts or you don't feel good about your smile, you can't be at your best.

When you maintain your dental health, you not only feel better, you're more confident. Your smile lets everyone know. Health and smile... they go together.

Your mouth, teeth, gums are part of your overall well being

Guaranteed Smiles is your path to quality dental health. Follow the links below or in the right column to learn more. Dr. Maggie and her team are here to answer any questions you have about your "smile health"... Change your smile... Change your life.

Oral Hygiene - brushing and flossing are a vital part of your dental health. Periodontal disease and tooth decay are caused by bacterial plaque. Prevention starts with good brushing and flossing techniques, performed daily. Read more...

Child Dentistry - When should your child have his or her first visit? How do you prepare your child? What about baby teeth? All your answers here...

Dental Dictionary - Just in case you need to look up one of the technical terms - you've heard it, but aren't exactly sure what it means - check our Dental Dictionary

Periodontal Maintenance -This page is about the tissue and structures surrounding and supporting the teeth, primarily the gums. Your overall health will be greatly impacted (good or bad) by how well you maintain periodontal health. Causes and care - get your answers here...

Oral hygiene

Why is oral hygiene so important?

Adults over 35 lose more teeth to gum diseases (periodontal disease) than from cavities. Three out of four adults are affected at some time in their life. The best way to prevent cavities and periodontal disease is by good tooth brushing and flossing techniques, performed daily.

Periodontal disease and decay are both caused by bacterial plaque. Plaque is a colorless film, which sticks to your teeth at the gumline. Plaque constantly forms on your teeth. By thorough daily brushing and flossing you can remove these germs and help prevent periodontal disease.

How to Brush

Dr. Aleksanyan recommends using a soft to medium tooth brush. Position the brush at a 45 degree angle where your gums and teeth meet. Gently move the brush in a circular motion several times using small, gentle strokes brushing the outside surfaces of your teeth. Use light pressure while putting the bristles between the teeth, but not so much pressure that you feel any discomfort.

If you have any pain while brushing or have any questions about how to brush properly, please be sure to call the office at 303-703-4544.

When you are done cleaning the outside surfaces of all your teeth, follow the same directions while cleaning the inside of the back teeth.

To clean the inside surfaces of the upper and lower front teeth, hold the brush vertically. Make several gentle back-and-forth strokes over each tooth. Don't forget to gently brush the surrounding gum tissue.

Next you will clean the biting surfaces of your teeth by using short, gentle strokes. Change the position of the brush as often as necessary to reach and clean all surfaces. Try to watch yourself in the mirror to make sure you clean each surface. After you are done, rinse vigorously to remove any plaque you might have loosened while brushing.

How to Floss

Periodontal disease usually appears between the teeth where your toothbrush cannot reach. Flossing is a very effective way to remove plaque from those surfaces. However, it is important to develop the proper technique. The following instructions will help you, but remember it takes time and practice.

Start with a piece of floss (waxed is easier) about 18” long. Lightly wrap most of the floss around the middle finger of one hand. Wrap the rest of the floss around the middle finger of the other hand.

To clean the upper teeth, hold the floss tightly between the thumb and forefinger of each hand. Gently insert the floss tightly between the teeth using a back-and-forth motion. Do not force the floss or try to snap it in to place. Bring the floss to the gumline then curve it into a C-shape against one tooth. Slide it into the space between the gum and the tooth until you feel light resistance. Move the floss up and down on the side of one tooth. Remember there are two tooth surfaces that need to be cleaned in each space. Continue to floss each side of all the upper teeth. Be careful not to cut the gum tissue between the teeth. As the floss becomes soiled, turn from one finger to the other to get a fresh section.

To clean between the bottom teeth, guide the floss using the forefingers of both hands. Do not forget the back side of the last tooth on both sides, upper and lower.

When you are done, rinse vigorously with water to remove plaque and food particles. Do not be alarmed if during the first week of flossing your gums bleed or are a little sore. If your gums hurt while flossing you could be doing it too hard or pinching the gum. As you floss daily and remove the plaque your gums will heal and the bleeding should stop.

Choosing Oral Hygiene Products

There are so many products on the market it can become confusing and choosing between all the products can be difficult. Here are some suggestions for choosing dental care products that will work for most patients.

Automatic and “high-tech” electronic toothbrushes are safe and effective for the majority of the patients. Oral irrigators (water spraying devices) will rinse your mouth thoroughly, but will not remove plaque. You need to brush and floss in conjunction with the irrigator. We see excellent results with electric toothbrushes called Rotadent and Interplak.

Caring for Sensitive Teeth

Sometimes after dental treatment, teeth are sensitive to hot and cold. This should not last long, but only if the mouth is kept clean. If the mouth is not kept clean the sensitivity will remain and could become more severe. If your teeth are especially sensitive consult with your doctor. They may recommend a medicated toothpaste or mouth rinse made especially for sensitive teeth.

Some toothbrushes have a rubber tip on the handle, this is used to massage the gums after brushing. There are also tiny brushes (interproximal toothbrushes) that clean between your teeth. If these are used improperly you could injure the gums, so discuss proper use with your doctor.

Fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses, if used in conjunction with brushing and flossing, can reduce tooth decay as much as 40%. Remember, these rinses are not recommended for children under six years of age. Tartar control toothpastes will reduce tartar above the gum line, but gum disease starts below the gumline so these products have not been proven to reduce the early stage of gum disease.

Anti-plaque rinses, approved by the American Dental Association , contain agents that may help bring early gum disease under control. Use these in conjunction with brushing and flossing.

Professional Cleaning

Daily brushing and flossing will keep dental calculus to a minimum, but a professional cleaning will remove calculus in places your toothbrush and floss have missed. Your visit to our office is an important part of your program to prevent gum disease. Keep your teeth for your lifetime.

Child Dentistry

Your child's first visit

The first "regular" dental visit should be just after your child's third birthday. The first dental visit is usually short and involves very little treatment. We may ask you to sit in the dental chair and hold your child during the examination. You may also be asked to wait in the reception area during part of the visit so that a relationship can be built between your child and your dentist.

We will gently examine your child's teeth and gums. X-rays may be taken (to reveal decay and check on the progress of your child's permanent teeth under the gums). We may clean your child's teeth and apply topical fluoride to help protect the teeth against decay. We will make sure your child is receiving adequate fluoride at home. Most important of all, we will review with you how to clean and care for your child's teeth.

What should I tell my child about the first dental visit?

We are asked this question many times. We suggest you prepare your child the same way you would before their first haircut or trip to the shoe store. Your child's reaction to his first visit to the dentist may surprise you.

During your first visit the dentist will:
  • Examine your mouth, teeth and gums.
  • Evaluate adverse habits like thumb sucking.
  • Check to see if you need fluoride.
  • Teach you about cleaning your teeth and gums.
  • Suggest a schedule for regular dental visits.

Here are some "First Visit" tips:

  • Take your child for a "preview" of the office.
  • Read books with them about going to the dentist.
  • Review with them what the dentist will be doing at the time of the first visit.
  • Speak positively about your own dental experiences.

What about preventative care?

Tooth decay and children no longer have to go hand in hand. At our office we are most concerned with all aspects of preventive care. We use the latest in dental sealant technology to protect your child's teeth. Dental sealants are space-age plastics that are bonded to the chewing surfaces of decay-prone back teeth. This is just one of the ways we will set the foundation for your child's lifetime of good oral health.

Cavity prevention

Most of the time cavities are due to a diet high in sugary foods and a lack of brushing. Limiting sugar intake and brushing regularly, of course, can help. The longer it takes your child to chew their food and the longer the residue stays on their teeth, the greater the chances of getting cavities.

Every time someone eats, an acid reaction occurs inside their mouth as the bacteria digests the sugars. This reaction lasts approximately 20 minutes. During this time the acid environment can destroy the tooth structure, eventually leading to cavities.

Consistency of a person's saliva also makes a difference; thinner saliva breaks up and washes away food more quickly. When a person eats diets high in carbohydrates and sugars they tend to have thicker saliva, which in turn allows more of the acid-producing bacteria that can cause cavities.

Tips for cavity prevention

  • Limit frequency of meals and snacks.
  • Encourage brushing, flossing and rinsing.
  • Watch what your child drinks.
  • Avoid giving your child sticky foods.
  • Make treats part of meals.
  • Choose nutritious snacks.

The first baby teeth that come into the mouth are the two bottom front teeth. You will notice this when your baby is about 6-8 months old. Next to follow will be the 4 upper front teeth and the remainder of your baby's teeth will appear periodically. They will usually appear in pairs along the sides of the jaw until the child is about 2 1/2 years old.

At around 2 1/2 years old your child should have all 20 teeth. Between the ages of 5 and 6 the first permanent teeth will begin to erupt. Some of the permanent teeth replace baby teeth and some don't. Don't worry if some teeth are a few months early or late as all children are different.

Baby teeth are important as they not only hold space for permanent teeth but they are important to chewing, biting, speech and appearance. For this reason it is important to maintain a healthy diet and daily hygiene.

Dental Dictionary

  • A
    • Abscess

      A collection of pus. Usually forms because of infection.

    • Abutment

      A tooth or tooth structure which is responsible for the anchorage of a bridge or a denture.

    • Amalgam

      A silver filling material.

    • Anesthetic

      An agent that causes temporary loss of sensation/feeling.

    • Anterior

      The front position.

    • Apex

      The end of the root.

    • Asepsis

      No micro-organism.

    • Attrition

      Wear of teeth due to activities such as chewing.

    • Avulsed

      An injury that causes a tooth to be completely knocked out of the mouth.

  • B
    • Bitewing

      A kind of dental x-ray which is taken with the teeth bite together. The main function of this kind of x-ray is to detect cavities in between teeth and height of bone support.

    • Bleaching

      Whitening of teeth.

    • Bridge

      A prosthesis which is fixed inside the mouth to replace missing teeth.

    • Bruxism

      Teeth grinding.

  • C
    • Canine

      The third tooth from the middle of the jaw. There are four of them. They are the longest teeth in humans.

    • Canker sore

      An ulceration with yellow base and red border in mouth. It can be caused by trauma or herpes simplex virus.

    • Caries

      Tooth decay.

    • Cavity

      A hole on the tooth.

    • Cast

      A model of teeth.

    • Cementation

      The process of "gluing" the appliance/prosthesis on the associated area.

    • Chlorhexidine

      An anti-microbial agent. It is available in many forms such as gels and rinses. It is an effective agent in controlling gum diseases.

    • Clasp

      A metal arm extended from a removable partial denture. It helps to hold onto natural tooth structure and thus provide anchorage for the denture.

    • Cold sore

      An ulcer or blister on lip. A form of herpes simplex.

    • Composite

      White filling.

    • Cross-bite

      An abnormal bite relationship of upper and lower jaw. The lower teeth/tooth align toward the check/ lip side more than the upper teeth/tooth.

    • Crown (porcelain/plastic/metal)

      A crown is almost like a "cap" on a tooth. It covers the tooth partially or totally above the gum to restore its function and outlook.

  • D
    • Decay

      A soft substance caused by the bacterial demineralization of enamel and dentin. An infection within a tooth. Must be treated.

    • Dentistry

      A branch of medicine that involves diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of any disease concerning teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures.

    • Dentition

      The position, type, and number of teeth in upper and lower jaw.

    • Denture

      (Immediate/complete/partial) (overdenture, temporary)
      An artificial object to replace missing teeth and their neighboring structures. There are many different types of denture to satisfy different treatment requirements and patient preferences

    • Denturist

      The person who specializes in fabricating dentures. A Denturist is not responsible for making any type of diagnosis or carrying out any other treatment (e.g. removing teeth).

    • Desensitization

      A procedure to reduce the sensitivity of teeth.

    • Diagnosis

      The process of identifying dental disease.

    • Diastema

      The space between two adjacent teeth.

    • Distal

      A direction indication in the mouth. It indicates the direction away from the middle of the jaw.

  • E
    • Edentulous

      No teeth.

    • Endodontics

      A department of dentistry involving diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental pulp (where the nerves and blood vessels are inside the tooth).

    • Eruption

      The process of the tooth appearing in the mouth.

    • Excision

      The action of cutting something off.

    • Extruded

      When a tooth may be pushed partially out of the socket.

  • F
    • Filling

      A restoration placed on a tooth to restore its function and appearance.

    • Flipper

      A temporary denture to replace missing teeth during the waiting period for long term treatment.

    • Floss

      A thread/tape that goes in between teeth for cleaning.

    • Fluoride

      A compound of fluorine (an element) which be put in different forms such as water, gels, and rinses to strengthen teeth.

    • Fluoride Treatment

      Teeth treatment with fluoride agents like gel or rinse. It helps to prevent tooth decay.

    • Fracture

      When a cusp of a tooth becomes weakened, a fracture may result. It is possible for the crack to extend further into the root and damage to the pulp is commonplace.

    • Framework

      A metal skeleton of a removable partial denture to support the false teeth and the plastic attachments.

  • G
    • Gingivitis

      The mildest form of gum disease: inflammation of gum. The earliest sign is bleeding gum.

  • H
    • Hemorrhage


    • Hemostasis

      Stop bleeding.

  • I
    • Impaction

      A condition where a tooth is not able to come in normally or is stuck underneath another tooth or bone.

    • Implant

      A device (usually "screw-like") put in the jaw bone to support a false tooth, a denture or a bridge.

    • Impression

      A mold taken by some jelly-like material loaded on a tray.

    • Incisal

      The cutting edge of front teeth.

    • Incisor

      The four upper and lower front teeth.

    • Inlay

      A restoration (usually gold, composite or ceramics) fabricated in the lab that cements on a tooth like a missing puzzle piece. It helps to restore the normal function and outlook of the tooth.

    • Interproximal

      The space between two adjacent teeth.

  • J
  • K
  • L
    • Lingual

      The side of the tooth towards the tongue.

  • M
    • Mesial

      The side of the tooth towards the middle of the jaw.

    • Molar

      The last three upper and lower teeth on both sides of the mouth.

    • Mouthguard

      A device to be worn in the mouth. Depending on the design of it, it prevents injury to teeth and/or jaw during teeth grinding or sport events.

  • N
    • Nightguard

      A mouthguard which is worn at night time.

  • O
    • Occlusal

      The biting surface of the back teeth.

    • Occlusion

      The way how the upper and lower teeth close together.

    • Onlay

      A restoration covers the entire biting surface of a tooth.

    • Open bite

      The situation where the upper teeth not able to contact the opposing lower teeth.

    • Orthodontics

      A special field in dentistry which involves diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of bite abnormalities or facial irregularities.

    • Over bite

      The overlap of upper teeth and lower teeth when they close together.

    • Overhang

      The portion of filling material that hangs beyond the border of the cavity.

  • P
    • Palate

      The roof of the mouth.

    • Panoramic Radiograph

      An x-ray film used to obtain the wide view of upper and lower jaw and their associated structures.

    • Perforation

      An opening on a tooth or other oral structure.

    • Periapical

      The surrounding of the bottom of the root of a tooth.

    • Periodontics

      A specialty of dentistry involves diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of gum (periodontal) disease.

    • Permanent teeth

      Adult's teeth. The first permanent tooth usually comes in around 6 years old.

    • Pin

      A piece of "nail-like" metal. It usually is used for better retention of a filling.

    • Polish

      A process to make the tooth or filling or other denture smooth and glossy.

    • Pontic

      The false tooth in a bridge or denture to replace the missing tooth.

    • Post

      A big pin which can be made with different materials such as metal or carbon. Its function usually is to support a big buildup on a tooth.

    • Posterior

      Located at the back.

    • Pre-authorization

      An approval from the particular authority (usually insurance company in dentistry) before any action (treatment) is carried out.

    • Pre-medication

      Medication needing to be taken before treatment.

    • Premolar

      The two teeth located in front of the molar.

    • Prescription

      A written statement (from a doctor to a pharmacist) regarding the type, the amount and direction of the use of a medication for a patient. In dentistry, a prescription can also be a written statement for preparation of an appliance from a dentist to a lab technician.

    • Primary teeth

      Baby teeth.

    • Prophylaxis/prophy

      The procedure of teeth polishing. It also means the prevention of diseases.

    • Prosthesis

      An artificial part to replace missing teeth and their associated structures.

    • Prosthodontics

      A specialty of dentistry involving diagnosis, treatment planning, and fabrication of artificial parts to replace missing teeth and their associated structures.

    • Pulp

      The innermost part of a tooth. It contains nerves and blood vessels inside a tooth.

    • Pulpectomy

      The removal of the whole pulp inside a tooth.

    • Pulpotomy

      The removal of the top part of the pulp inside a tooth.

  • Q
  • R
    • Radiograph

      An x-ray picture.

    • Recall

      The regular checkup and teeth cleaning appointment.

    • Recementation

      The process of "gluing" the appliance/prosthesis back on the associated area.

    • Restoration

      An item a dentist uses to restore the normal function of a tooth or an area in the mouth. It can be a filling, a crown, a bridge, etc.

    • Retainer

      A device used for maintaining the position of teeth in the jaw in orthodontic treatment.

    • Retreatment

      The process of repeating the root canal treatment.

    • Root

      The bottom part of tooth. It anchors the tooth to its supporting units.

    • Root canal

      The canal that runs inside the root of the tooth. It contains the nerves and blood vessels inside the tooth.

    • Root canal treatment

      A treatment for the root canal inside the tooth.

    • Root planing

      The action of cleaning the root area of teeth.

    • Rubber dam

      A rubber sheet that fits around teeth. It isolates the treatment area from the rest of the oral cavity.

  • S
    • Scaling

      The action of cleaning teeth below the gumline.

    • Sealant

      A thin layer of plastic-like material covering the grooves and pits on a tooth to prevent cavity.

    • Sedation

      The use of medication to calm a patient.

    • Space Maintainer

      An appliance to maintain the space between teeth.

    • Splint

      An appliance or a material to prevent movement of a mobile part.

  • T
    • Tempromandibular Joint (TMJ)

      The joint that links the two parts of the jaw.

    • Torus

      An outgrowth of bone. It usually develops on the roof of the mouth or around the premolar area on the lower jaw.

  • U
  • V
    • Veneer

      A layer of tooth-colored material (can be porcelain, composite, or ceramics) that attaches to the front of the tooth. It is usually used to improve the appearance of the tooth.

  • W
    • Wisdom tooth

      The eighth (also the last) tooth from the middle of the jaw.

  • X
    • Xerostomia

      Dry mouth

  • Y
  • Z

Periodontal Maintenance

Periodontal diseases are infections of the gums, which gradually destroy the support of your natural teeth. There are numerous disease entities requiring different treatment approaches. Dental plaque is the primary cause of gum disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Daily brushing and flossing will prevent most periodontal conditions.

Why is oral hygiene so important?

Adults over 35 lose more teeth to gum diseases, (periodontal disease) than from cavities. Three out of four adults are affected at some time in their life. The best way to prevent cavities and periodontal disease is by good tooth brushing and flossing techniques, performed daily.

Periodontal disease and decay are both caused by bacterial plaque. Plaque is a colorless film, which sticks to your teeth at the gum line. Plaque constantly forms on your teeth. By thorough daily brushing and flossing you can remove these germs and help prevent periodontal disease.

Periodontal diseases can be accelerated by a number of different factors. However, it is mainly caused by the bacteria found in dental plaque, a sticky colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth. If not carefully removed by daily brushing and flossing, plaque hardens into a rough, porous substance known as calculus (or tartar).

Other important factors affecting the health of your gums include:

  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Stress
  • Clenching and grinding teeth
  • Medication
  • Poor nutrition

Periodontal Disease

Bacteria found in plaque produces toxins or poisons that irritate the gums, which may cause them to turn red, swell and bleed easily. If this irritation is prolonged, the gums separate from the teeth, causing pockets (spaces) to form. As periodontal diseases progress, the supporting gum tissue and bone that holds teeth in place deteriorate. If left untreated, this leads to tooth loss.

Preventing Gum Disease

The best way to prevent gum disease is effective daily brushing and flossing as well as regular professional examinations and cleanings. Unfortunately, even with the most diligent home dental care, people still can develop some form of periodontal disease. Once this disease starts, professional intervention is necessary to prevent its progress.


ARESTIN® (minocycline hydrochloride) is an antibiotic that kills the bacteria that causes the infection.

  • It's placed directly in the infected areas—or "pockets"—in your gums.
  • It's applied right after scaling and root planing, the dental procedure that disrupts stubborn plaque and bacteria below your gum line—where brushing and flossing can't reach.

ARESTIN® starts working quickly, right at the source of infection, and keeps fighting bacteria long after you leave the dental office.1,2

ARESTIN® fights infection and inflammation for 30 days, 2 and provides significantly better results than scaling and root planning alone for up to 90 days. 3

  • Oringer RJ, Al-Shammari KF, Aldredge WA, et al. Effect of locally administered minocycline microspheres on markers of bone resorption. J Periodontol 2002;73:835-842.
  • Goodson JM, Gunsollwy JC, Grossi SG, et al. Minocycline HCl microspheres reduce red-complex bacteria in periodontal disease therapy. J Periodontol 2007;78(8):1568-1579.
  • Williams RC, Paquette DW, Offenbacher S, et al. Treatment of periodontitis by local administration of minocycline microspheres: a controlled trial. J Periodontol 2001;72:1535-1544.